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Voting developed: Blockchain tech outshines paper ballots and e-voting

02/20/2021

The correct of synergy between blockchain and biometrics will unleash the ability of decentralized voting.

Voting is an important a part of any democracy, because it provides its residents the prospect to take part within the democratic governance course of. In a democracy, the target of voting is not only the creation of presidency however a collective effort that drives the pursuits of the society and the economic system.

The basic goal of voting the world over is to make sure that it occurs in a good and clear method. The normal poll system has existed for years, nevertheless it’s secure to say now that it has outlived its time. Challenges, resembling double voting, spurious votes and poll privateness issues, have been within the information again and again exhibiting the inefficiency of the present system.

Plus, the price of organizing poll voting at scale is dear and is time-consuming. For instance, India spent near $8 billion in its 2019 nationwide elections and took roughly 40 days to complete the whole voting course of.

Subsequently, we are able to safely say that the standard voting system has disadvantages not solely with regards to safety and the time it consumes but additionally with the price to prepare the whole course of in a seamless method.

Is web voting the answer?

Can we then say that web voting is the answer to all the issues confronted by the present conventional poll system? Web voting pilot tasks have been applied the world over however have been discontinued after some time.

Financial challenges, resembling web accessibility, studying and adapting to the brand new voting fashion by the inhabitants, can nonetheless be overcome with growth and coaching.

However the dangers associated to safety (pc viruses/hacking) and scalability mechanisms are those that restrict the pilot. Additionally, web voting additionally can’t primarily assure one vote per one particular person, and the excessive price of implementing it impacts the implementation additional.

Is blockchain-backed voting the answer?

Blockchain tech implementation for voting positively is an efficient choice, because the decentralized consensus protocol ensures safety as much as a sure restrict, which is safer than the present centralized method of voting.

However then it provides rise to sure challenges like:

  • Scalability: Blockchains at the moment are usually not scalable.

On the Ethereum blockchain, solely 15 transactions may be validated per second. Which means that because the variety of voters will increase, blockchain voting takes far more time to complete the voting course of.

For instance, when the second smallest nation on the earth, Tuvalu, with a inhabitants of 10,600, plans to do its elections on the Ethereum blockchain, for instance, it could take near 11.5 minutes (10,600/15 = 706 seconds) for the whole voting course of to be accomplished, however contemplating a rustic resembling India, which has a inhabitants of 1.4 billion, it could simply take round three years for the whole voting course of to complete on the Ethereum blockchain.

These sorts of time frames are virtually inconceivable in a big democracy to even think about.

  • Vitality consumption: Blockchains eat far more vitality than any system current.

For instance, the Ethereum blockchain consumes 1.02 kilowatt-hours per transaction. In a rustic like Tulavu, the vitality consumption for blockchain voting seems to be 10.8 megawatt-hours, which won’t have any appreciable unfavorable impression on the atmosphere. However however, for a populous nation like India, blockchain voting, if applied with Ethereum, will find yourself consuming 1,428 gigawatt-hours.

Vitality price not solely seems to be very excessive however it can find yourself having a unfavorable (if not devastating) impression on the atmosphere as nicely.

  • Safety: Though blockchains are safe, they’re vulnerable to 51%, the place malicious nodes occupy 51% or extra of the community. Since voting is one thing that might change the state of an economic system, possibilities for hacking/fraud are very excessive.
  • Id: Present blockchains can’t guarantee a very decentralized id, too.

How ought to blockchains protocols be designed then to be scalable, safe and fewer energy-consuming?

  • For scalability. As a substitute of all nodes validating all transactions, solely a subset of randomly chosen nodes can validate a transaction. This manner, the whole community can, in a coordinated method, validate over one million transactions.

That is defined under with the hypergeometric distribution.

In a community, solely 200 randomly chosen nodes are wanted to validate a transaction with 99.999999999% confidence.

  • Vitality consumption. The proof-of-work algorithm designed in Bitcoin (known as HashRate PoW) needs to be changed with a PoW that consumes much less vitality since solely 200 nodes are wanted to validate a transaction. The order of vitality consumption must ideally be 3.6 billion instances much less energy-consuming than Bitcoin.
  • Safety. The above hypergeometric distribution demonstrates that even with 90% malicious nodes within the community, solely 200 randomly chosen nodes are sufficient to validate a transaction. Subsequently, the safety of the blockchain needs to be greater: not 51% or 66%, however 90%.

Blockchain mixed with biometrics

Blockchain tech coupled with biometrics is the perfect answer for the voting course of. The blockchain protocol, in fact, needs to be scalable, contain few validating nodes, eat much less vitality and be extremely safe.

The biometrics must also shield private information, encrypt/decrypt information/messages, it ought to have tamper-proof authentication and adjust to the Basic Knowledge Safety Regulation within the European Union.

Presently, there aren’t any gamers which have been successfully in a position to mix each blockchain and biometrics to supply an answer for voting.

Going by the challenges that we now have mentioned above, the reality is that on this web period, if blockchain really has to allow a seamless voting system of free and honest elections, it needs to be mixed with biometrics.

The talk and dialogue might be round for some time on how the web and the blockchain will ultimately disrupt or not disrupt the voting course of. For instance, a latest article printed by the Massachusetts Institute of Expertise’s Laptop Science and Synthetic Intelligence Laboratory identified that transferring to blockchain-enabled voting doesn’t take away the danger of failures. Such a transfer can go from dangerous to worse. Nonetheless, it’s not inconceivable to declare victory on this area and maintain our elections 100% safe and honest.

The views, ideas and opinions expressed listed below are the authors’ alone and don’t essentially replicate or characterize the views and opinions of Cointelegraph.

Vishnu Priya Mishra is a blockchain fanatic with six years of expertise in promoting and advertising, she has labored with manufacturers, resembling Burger King, Xbox and Ziff Davis in model and group constructing. She manages advertising and PR at Uniris.
Nilesh Patankar is a seasoned technologist with over 25 years of expertise within the funds area. He has managed world packages for Mastercard and Barclays. He was additionally the chief expertise officer of Payback, the most important coalition loyalty program in India serving over 100 million customers. Nilesh is a co-founder and chief working officer of Uniris. 
Akshay Kumar Kandhi is the top of innovation, analysis and growth at Uniris, the place he’s on the forefront of analysis in blockchain and biometrics. He has a level from École Polytechnique in France.