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Why Proof-Of-Work Is A Superior Consensus Mechanism For Bitcoin


The proof is within the pudding in terms of Bitcoin’s proof-of-work mechanism versus a proof-of-stake consensus mechanism debate.

There have been numerous arguments surrounding each the proof-of-work (PoW) and proof-of-stake (PoS) as a method of gaining consensus on a blockchain community.

Many individuals have been asking themselves which one is best, and why? On this article, I am going to go over a few of the fundamental advantages and downsides of every consensus mechanism.

Let’s dive in.

What Is Proof-Of-Work (PoW)?

Proof-of-work is a decentralized consensus mechanism first launched by Bitcoin (BTC). We are going to use the Bitcoin community for example to know the proof-of-work consensus mechanism.

The Bitcoin community primarily requires members to contribute computing energy, comparable to graphics processing models, to unravel arbitrary mathematical puzzles, and forestall anybody from gaining management or manipulating the system.

Each transaction that happens is validated earlier than it will get added to the blockchain. Every block then will get validated by the miners, who get rewarded BTC tokens as they’ve put within the “work” by way of their processing models. Therefore, that is known as proof-of-work.

The proof-of-work consensus mechanism has stood the take a look at of time. This consensus mechanism has efficiently validated billions of transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain for years and has maintained its authenticity and reliability as essentially the most safe and decentralized consensus mechanism created until date.

What Is Proof-Of-Stake (PoS)?

Proof-of-stake (PoS) is a consensus mechanism used on blockchain networks created as a substitute for the PoW methodology for validating transactions.

On this mechanism, cryptocurrency house owners can validate block transactions primarily based on the variety of cash the validator stakes (as an alternative of miners validating them). Therefore, that is known as proof-of-stake (PoS).

The validators in PoS are chosen at random. To change into a validator, one must stake a certain quantity of cryptocurrency token required by that particular blockchain.

There are a number of variations of PoS, comparable to delegated-proof-of-stake (DPoS), and so on. These have been developed and applied throughout varied blockchain networks, however all of them principally work in an analogous means.

When a block of transactions is able to be processed, the cryptocurrency’s protocol selects a validator to assessment the block. The validator then checks if the transactions within the block are totally correct, and in the event that they go the checks, the block will get added to the blockchain.

In return for doing so, the validator will get rewarded within the type of cryptocurrency tokens for his or her contribution.

Nonetheless, if a validator finally ends up proposing a block with info that’s inaccurate, they lose a few of their staked tokens as a penalty. This could occur in PoS as there is no such thing as a {hardware} that solves cryptographic puzzles (not like within the case with PoW).

Which Consensus Mechanism Is Higher And Why?

Each PoW and PoS are designed to assist the nodes on a blockchain community to confirm all of the transactions that happen.

As soon as the nodes agree on the validity of a block of transactions, the transactions get added to the blockchain. Each fashions provide distinctive strategies to realize the identical finish end result.

Nonetheless, proof-of-work as a system for validating transactions and securing the blockchain community is way extra superior to a proof-of-stake (PoS) mannequin, nevertheless it comes at a value.

Under, I’ve mentioned what makes PoW a superior consensus mechanism when in comparison with PoS, and the prices related to it.

Safety And Knowledge Authenticity

PoW is extra superior than PoS from a safety and knowledge authenticity perspective. This is because of the truth that in PoW, the info is linked to a confirmed historical past of human selections, which can not cheat in a system that verifies each single transaction.

This method works with 0% belief, and 100% of the transactions are verified and recorded by the community individuals on a public ledger.

PoW can be a extremely safe consensus mechanism as a result of over a time period, it makes the community an increasing number of troublesome, to some extent that it turns into unhackable — as a result of the community is continually monitored by its individuals. These individuals now have pores and skin within the recreation (as they should “work” to unravel for transactions). This makes the community extraordinarily costly to hack.

However, the PoS consensus mechanism is extra susceptible to hacks and assaults.

In idea, if a community participant (or a gaggle of individuals) will get to some extent of proudly owning 51% of staked cash, this community participant (or group) might then primarily management your complete blockchain and alter it. That is termed as a 51% assault.

Community Possession

Given the design of “mining” for getting rewards, the PoW mannequin allows a decentralized construction.

Bitcoin is a superb instance of this. Bitcoin’s community is totally decentralized. Nobody particular person, entity or nation controls it. It’s owned and managed by hundreds of nodes operating the community, in a decentralized and secured system, backed by PoW.

However, PoS allows a extra centralized construction. The individuals who can stake extra (typically the wealthy), in idea, can accumulate larger management simply by staking extra.

This can be a dangerous proposition as a result of if a gaggle of individuals finally will get to 51% management, they will alter the blockchain to profit themselves.

Haven’t we seen the issues with this type of system already? Simply open your eyes and you will notice that now we have been residing on this system for some time now and look the place it has introduced us.

Incentive Alignment And Fairness

The PoW mannequin rewards miners once they resolve advanced mathematical puzzles — a block reward and a share of the transaction charges in some circumstances. This incentivizes the appropriate conduct because the nodes are competing to unravel the puzzle to get the reward.

The community retains getting harder and harder, making certain that fixing these puzzles requires larger computing energy. This in flip makes your complete community safer and costlier to hack or assault.

As the worth of the cryptocurrency goes up, the worth of the reward goes up. Each miner on the community has equal alternative of incomes the reward and in doing so, they proceed to safe the community and make it sturdy.

This whole setup incentivizes the appropriate conduct and discourages forking, which is the creation of another blockchain when the protocol will get up to date.

However, in a PoS mannequin, the inducement for getting the reward is to simply stake extra. This results in the centralization problem with individuals staking extra, doubtlessly getting larger management of the blockchain. In an unmanaged blockchain, this incentive results in an even bigger safety menace with much less decentralization and extra susceptibility to low-cost assaults.

Check Of Time

The PoW mannequin has stood the take a look at of time. The Bitcoin community is a superb instance of this.

Within the final 13 years, the Bitcoin community has by no means been hacked or compromised in any means or type. It is the world’s strongest community and has stood the take a look at of time from a community authenticity, reliability and safety perspective.

However, the proof-of-stake fashions are comparatively newer and stay of their early phases, each in adoption and implementation. Additionally, there’s a larger degree of confusion across the feasibility of a few of these fashions as an increasing number of variations are popping out that haven’t been totally examined.

Vitality Consumption

There have been arguments traditionally that PoW fashions demand extreme vitality consumption, which results in elevated prices and environmental impacts.

That is true. Certainly, a PoW mannequin consumes much more vitality than a PoS mannequin.

This is because of the truth that as the issue of the community goes up, an increasing number of computational energy is required to unravel for the complexity. That is the price of operating a extremely safe community.

A financial community, which wants safety at its core, does eat vitality. Let’s take fiat currencies for instance. Fiat currencies use much more vitality than the PoW mannequin, just like the Bitcoin community would use.

It is because standard banking backed by fiat currencies depends on paper cash, which requires sources to supply them, and ends in a whole lot of waste. While you issue within the vitality prices of banks, high-rise workplace areas, safety vaults, safety vans, and different overheads, the standard banking system is proven to be way more energy-depleting than Bitcoin.

A PoW mannequin, just like the Bitcoin community, does not require any bodily sources to supply, other than the computational energy wanted to take care of the blockchain. So, whereas the Bitcoin community consumes vitality, it is nonetheless extra environmentally friendlier than conventional banking and the fiat forex system that we use at the moment. It’s a a lot better answer and an enchancment of the vitality consumption use case and an improve to the present system.

In different phrases, shifting our financial system into the Bitcoin community is not going to simply be extra environment friendly and safe, however will even be an important step in preventing in opposition to world warming.

PoW is a superior system (as we mentioned earlier) and it’s incentivizing innovation and creativity within the vitality consumption house as properly.

PoW vitality consumption has been closely optimized all through the previous few years and makes use of renewable vitality, and vitality that might have in any other case been wasted.

Let’s take the Bitcoin community for instance. In response to the Q3 World Bitcoin Mining Knowledge, a majority of the mining executed on Bitcoin is thru renewable vitality.

Actually, Bitcoin mining vitality use is simply 0.122% when in comparison with the world’s whole vitality. In response to the report, in Q3 of 2021, mining effectivity elevated by 23%, and sustainable electrical energy combine elevated by 3%.

Picture supply:

Actually, Bitcoin mining has elevated 43X in effectivity throughout the final seven years. In different phrases, its mining is 4,237% extra environment friendly now than it was seven years in the past.

This report concludes that the Bitcoin Mining Council has estimated a 3x and 2x enchancment within the mining effectivity over the subsequent 4 and following 4 years.

So not solely is it essentially the most environment friendly utilization of vitality at the moment (for the applying of a financial system), it’s assured to be dramatically extra environment friendly throughout the span of the subsequent eight years.

The rewards for mining Bitcoin are excessive, which incentivizes miners to search for different vitality sources, resulting in improvements in renewables. Since most of the price of mining Bitcoin goes to electrical energy, miners are pushed to search out the most cost effective, cleanest supply potential to maximise income.

Actually, Bitcoin mining could possibly be stated to be one of many greenest large-scale industries globally. A lot of the largest mining outfits are situated in areas the place renewable electrical energy is considerable. Renewable vitality sources have gotten an increasing number of widespread, as they’re cleaner and cheaper than conventional types of vitality.

Many consultants consider that the way forward for renewable vitality is vivid and can finally overtake standard types of vitality. Bitcoin mining is main this cost.

The vitality consumption of Bitcoin is a small worth to pay, contemplating the financial and social worth that it supplies. Bitcoin is price each little bit of vitality wanted to maintain it going.


While you have a look at all the advantages and prices of a PoW mannequin, you understand that the advantages of the PoW mannequin far outweighs the prices.

PoW is a superior system resulting from the truth that it’s honest, safe, and ensures incentives which can be aligned with the aim of the blockchain community, to safe every transaction.

PoW vitality consumption has been closely optimized all through the previous few years and makes use of renewable vitality or vitality that might have in any other case been wasted.

Bitcoin is backed by the PoW consensus mechanism and has stood the take a look at of time during the last 13 years. This alone is proof of how efficient and highly effective the PoW consensus mannequin is.

A community constructed on fairness, safety, decentralization and proof-of-work consensus mechanism is engineered to thrive.

This can be a visitor publish by Mir Quadri. Opinions expressed are fully their very own and don’t essentially replicate these of BTC Inc or Bitcoin Journal.